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Table of Contents
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 132-133

Journal scan

1 Provenance and Peer Review Commissioned; Internally Peer Reviewed
2 Provenance and Peer Review Commissioned; Internally Peer Reviewed

Date of Web Publication4-Aug-2020

Correspondence Address:
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JCSR.JCSR_23_20

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How to cite this article:
Suresh V, Bitla A R. Journal scan. J Clin Sci Res 2020;9:132-3

How to cite this URL:
Suresh V, Bitla A R. Journal scan. J Clin Sci Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 31];9:132-3. Available from: https://www.jcsr.co.in/text.asp?2020/9/2/132/291371

First cases of corona virus disease 2019 in France: Surveillance, investigations and control measures, January 2020

A novel corona virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2) causing a cluster of respiratory infections (corona virus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) was identified on 7 January, 2020 in Wuhan, China. The epidemic quickly disseminated from Wuhan and within a short span of 35 days (as on 12 February, 2020) 45,179 cases have been confirmed in 25 countries, including 1,116 deaths. The authors report the strengthened surveillance measures implemented in France on 10 January, 2020 to identify imported cases early and prevent secondary transmission. Three categories of risk exposure and follow-up procedure were defined for contacts. The first three cases of COVID-19 in Europe were confirmed on 24 January. Contact tracing was immediately initiated. Five contacts were evaluated as at low risk of exposure and 18 at moderate/high risk. As on 12 February, 2020, two cases were discharged and the third one remained symptomatic with a persistent cough, and no secondary transmission was identified. The authors recommend effective collaboration between all parties involved in the surveillance and response to emerging threats to detect imported cases early and to implement adequate control measures.

  Comment Top

Sibylle et al. have implemented a strengthened surveillance of COVID-19 cases so as to identify imported cases early and to prevent secondary transmission whether in the community or among health-care workers in France. Their findings suggested that the active surveillance of close contacts of confirmed COVID-19 cases and the implementation of control measures, including home quarantine for those evaluated at moderate/high risk of exposure which in turn decrease the risk of human-to-human transmission originating from imported cases and subsequently delay propagation of the virus in the general population. So that, health-care system is very much prepared for any further spread of the epidemic. In India, these types of active surveillance studies to be conducted forthwith to avoid human-to-human transmission. Epidemiological and clinical data collected about the confirmed cases and their contacts will increase knowledge of COVID-19 which is possible only with the help of ICMR-Virus Research and Diagnostic Laboratories and Government of India. However, the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during the asymptomatic phase cannot be excluded.

Sibylle BS, Patrick R, Yassoungo S, Alexandra M, Christine C, Anne S, et al. First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in France: Surveillance, investigations and control measures, January 2020. Eur Surveill 2020; 25. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2000094.

Cardiac and stress biomarkers and chronic kidney disease progression: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study

This study included 3664 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study (CRIC) with the primary outcome of CKD progression, defined as progression to end-stage-renal disease or 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Cardiac and stress biomarkers (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP)], high-sensitivity troponin T [hsTnT], growth differentiation factor-15 [GDF-15] and soluble ST-2 [sST-2]) were measured at entry and later on progression of CKD. The association of each biomarker with CKD progression, adjusting for demographics, site, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, eGFR, urine proteinuria, blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, medication use and mineral metabolism was tested using the Cox models. A total of 1,221 individuals with CKD had CKD progression over a median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up of 5.8 (2.4–8.6) years. Among the markers studied, GDF-15, NT-proBNP and hsTnT were found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of CKD progression. The strongest association was seen for GDF-15 (hazard ratios [HRs] are per standard deviation higher of log-transformed biomarker): GDF-15 (HR 1.50 [95% confidence interval: 1.35–1.67]).

  Comment Top

This study shows a close relationship between cardiac, stress markers and renal mechanisms in the progression of CKD. NT-proBNP and hsTnT have been earlier shown to be associated with major cardiovascular events and mortality. Similarly, GDF-15 (a member of the transforming growth factor-β cytokine superfamily) and sST-2 (soluble [fraction of] suppression of tumorigenicity 2 and a member of the interleukin-1 receptor family) are expressed under conditions of cellular stress and inflammation, respectively. The identification of a close link between these biomarkers and CKD progression could thus provide scope for the identification of novel drugs targets to slow progression of CKD.

Bansal N, Zelnick L, Shlipak MG, Anderson A, Christenson R, Deo R, et al. Cardiac and stress biomarkers and chronic kidney disease progression: The CRIC study. Clin Chem 2019;65:1448-57.

Time-dependent variation of ionised calcium in serum samples

The authors studied the time-dependent variation in concentration of ionised calcium in arterial heparinised blood and venous serum in 25 individuals. The analysis was done within 20 min of puncture for arterial samples and within 10 min after centrifugation done 30 min after sampling. Further, the authors assessed the effect of time between sampling and centrifugation in three tubes (n = 30) centrifuged 15, 30 and 60 min after sampling, and analysed within 10 min. Furthermore, the effect of time between centrifugation and analysis was also assessed in three tubes (n = 31) centrifuged 30 min after sampling and analysed at 0–10, 30–40, and 90–100 min after centrifugation. Although no difference was observed between ionised calcium in arterial blood and serum, a significant decrease was observed in tubes centrifuged at 60 min and 15 min after sampling compared to 30 min and in tubes analysed 30–40 and 90–100 min after centrifugation compared to 0–10 min. The difference being clinically significant between 60 versus 30 min (centrifugation) and 90–100 versus 0–10 and 30–40 min (analysis).

  Comment Top

The measurement of ionised calcium levels plays an important role in clinical practise. A number of factors pre-analytical (sample type, haemolysis, anti-coagulant used, etc.,) and analytical (method, standardisation and analytical performance) factors can influence ionised calcium levels. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines suggest that the patient's clinical condition should be the criteria to decide on the choice of sample type. It recommends use of whole blood with balanced heparin as the appropriate choice in acute and critical conditions requiring rapid results, while anaerobically collected serum is the best choice for routine diagnostic procedure. The present study shows that when properly collected and analysed timely, arterial whole blood and serum can be used interchangeably for ionised calcium. However, the results may not apply in the presence of acidosis and alkalosis which can affect the results significantly since all the samples tested had normal pH.

Perović A, Njire Bratičević M. Time-dependent variation of ionised calcium in serum samples. Biochem Med (Zagreb) 2019;29:030708.

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