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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 177-183

A study of association of ankle–brachial Index with cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus

1 Department of Cardiology, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Medicine, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Vaddera Sameeraja
Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JCSR.JCSR_45_19

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Background: Ankle–Brachial Index (ABI) has a proven role in the baseline assessment of the individuals who are at a risk of cardiovascular diseases. Sparse data are available regarding the association of cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and ABI from India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary teaching hospital in South India among patients with T2DM during the period October 2014–June 2016. ABI was measured using vascular Doppler-sphygmomanometer. Independent cardiovascular risk factors were assessed and their association with ABI was studied. Results: ABI was negatively correlated to cardiovascular risk factors such as age, body mass index, duration of T2DM, duration of hypertension and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the entire study population as well as in both genders separately. Among females, a statistically significant association of low ABI (<0.9) was observed with SBP and duration of hypertension only, whereas, in males, SBP, DBP and duration of T2DM were significantly associated with low ABI. Of note, among the individuals with proven coronary artery disease (CAD), statistically significant association with low ABI was also observed. Conclusions: In our study, low ABI has been observed with increasing age, obesity, high systolic and DBPs, increasing the duration of diabetes and hypertension, however, with a distinctive statistically significant association in males and females. Among the individuals with documented CAD, a significant proportion had a low ABI.

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